Web accessibility denotes inclusive practice of creating websites that are usable by people of every disabilities and abilities. On the developing, designing and editing of sites, all the users are provided equal access to functionality and information. It is basically the activity of creating websites and web applications that are inclusive and user-friendly by people of all ability and disability levels.
Web accessibility guidelines are a set of that were published by Web Accessibility Initiative of the W3C. These guidelines function for the accessibility of content, for the disabled primarily, though also for the agents that includes highly narrowed devices, mobile devices for example. These guidelines include:
Guideline 1: Provision of equivalent alternatives that auditory and visual content.
This is to provide content to users that when presented, conveys the same function and purpose as visual or auditory content. Even though a couple of people find it difficult to use applets, images, sounds, images or images directly, they can yet use pages including equal information to auditory or visual content. The guideline emphasizes importance of the provision of text equivalents of the non-text content, which include; video, pre-record audio and images. Provision of non-text equivalents of the texts is beneficial to users, focusing more on the non-readers or individuals having reading difficulties.
Guideline 2: Don’t depend on color
There should be ensure that graphics and texts are comprehendible when view in no color. People who may have difficulty in differentiating color ranges plus users who have devices having non-visual or non-color displays may not receive information if color only is used in information conveyance. Especially if background and foreground colors are too close to each other or have almost same hues, sufficient contrast may go not provided when viewed by a monochrome display or by individuals with varying color deficits.
It is therefore important that all information available in color is also available to be conveyed without color. Also the background and foreground color fuse should give sufficient contrast if viewed by individuals having varying color deficits or if viewed under black and white displays.
Guideline 3: Use of markup and style sheets accordingly
Documents should be marked up with the appropriate structural elements and presentations should also be controlled using style sheets instead of with presentation attributes and elements. The use of the markup inappropriately hinders accessibility, and the misuse of the markup in presentation effect, use of table in layout, makes it hard for the users that have specialized software to comprehend the page’s organization or navigate via it.
. Physical disabilities that may need keyboards to be replaced with voice input devices or other input devices.
. Hearing disabilities that require video and audio captioning.
. Cognitive disabilities that require a structure that provides consistent navigation.
. Visual disabilities that may require the use of screen enlargements, Braille displays or screen readers.
. Bandwidth or technology challenged people who may have outdated browsers or old computers, also enormous files that need special plugins.